russian grammar cases

This lesson introduces a new grammatical concept of cases. что?. Russian Grammar test: Cases By Yulia Amlinskaya. –  кем? Genitive Case Plural: 17. Understandably, most language learners want to start using their target language as soon as possible. The prepositional case is also called the locative case, as it was commonly used to denote a sentence's object's location or an activity. These forms (and their endings) are called cases. It is also used for the subject of a sentence: in "Bob eats lunch", Bob is the subject of the sentence, so would be in its default nominative form. In "Bob eats lunch," "lunch" is the direct object of the verb "eats". The Prepositional answers the question: about whom? When you speak English you just put the words in right order and get a correct sentence. Nowadays, however, it's only ever called after a few prepositions, hence its name. The gender of a word can be deduced by its nominative form. Marginal cases: the meaning of Partitive and Locative: Genitive and Partitive to express 'some' Locative case: The basic case endings of nouns and ordinary adjectives The chart: The effect of spelling rules: Variants of specific endings Prep., Dat.of nouns in -ий, -ия, and … Never write vowels Я and Ю after the consonants Г, К, Х ,Ш, Ж, Щ, Ч and Ц. Я must be replaced by А, and Ю must be replaced by У. Nouns and Personal Pronouns in the Prepositional Case: 22–28. It's not rare, though, and the prepositions that call it are the most common of all Russian prepositions. The Russian language has six cases to show what function a noun has in a sentence: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental, and prepositional. Nouns in the Instrumental Case Reflexive Verbs: 19, 20. We will be discussing it in following article. This has been the problem with learning Russian cases for me. The instrumental case is used to denote the object by which something is done. (чей?) In English, "Bob eats lunch" and "Lunch eats Bob" have different meanings. Aspects of Russian Verbs – Imperfective and Perfective: 30. These cases in English are called subjective and objective, and convey the same information as the Russian nominative and accusative cases. Directions and Places: 31. Too many people overcomplicate Russian. Case is considered one of the most important characteristics of the variable parts of speech. They are в (in), на (on), and о/обо (about; it's обо in the phrase "about me" or "about my"). This is accomplished through a system of grammatical cases where nouns, pronouns, and adjectives change their endings depending on their role in the sentence. There are 6 cases in Russian language, the first one – the Nominative case – is the original form of the word. In this way, it corresponds to one of the two meanings of the word 'with' in English: 'with', as in 'by means of'. For instance, в + prep means 'in', as in, "I live in England". English has few cases, favouring grammatical constructions over implicit case endings: compare the sentences, "I like apples" and "apples like me"; the first-person pronoun is 'I' when it's the subject of the verb, but it's 'me' when it's the object of the verb. The case system is also used in languages like Latin, Greek and German. There are six cases in Russian: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental, and prepositional. Nouns in the Instrumental Case: 18. To put a word into its genitive form you should add a … The Russian dative case is easy. In the sentence, "I am writing with a pencil", the phrase 'with a pencil' in Russian is simply the word 'pencil' (карандаш) put into its instrumental form (карандашом). – кого? чего? Я переводчик. what? Russian/Grammar/Cases < Russian ‎ | Grammar A case is a grammatical concept that tells you what a word is doing in a sentence. The dative case answers the questions кому (kaMOO)—"to whom" and чему (chyMOO)—"to what". In Russian grammar, the system of declension is elaborate and complex.Nouns, pronouns, adjectives, demonstratives, most numerals and other particles are declined for two grammatical numbers (singular and plural) and six grammatical cases (see below); some of these parts of speech in the singular are also declined by three grammatical genders (masculine, feminine and neuter). Their principal meaning is summarized below: The Nominative expresses the subject or predicate in answer to:   who? The following subsections give an overview of what each case does, with summary tables of conjugation The format for these will be "X,Y → Z", meaning if the word ends in X or Y, you remove the X or Y and replace it with Z. Here you can find a brief description of the six Russian cases: The nominative case shows the subject, or the doer of the action or the predicate. For example... ‘Ivan gives flowers to Anna’. The dative case is used to denote indirect objects, which are objects that indicate "to whom", or "to what" an action is done. Russian Grammar Tables Personal Pronouns (all cases) In the table below you can find all Russian personal pronouns. Verbs of Motion: 32. https://livefluent.com/decoding-the-6-russian-cases-a-beginners-guide Вдруг один из делегатов говорит: Directions and Places: 31. Plural nouns of any gender take their nominative plural form if inanimate, or their genitive plural form if animate. – кто? We introduce you to the Russian case system with detailed explanations on rules and exceptions.With our consolidated data you will feel confident in declension of Russian nouns, adjectives and pronouns soon! There are three important rules of Russian spelling. - Валя, принеси мне кофе, а этим трём идиотам – чай! The answers are provided in the end. For example, the English prepositional phrase with (his) foot (as in "John kicked the ball with his foot") might be rendered in Russian using a single noun in the instrumental case, or in Ancient Greek as τῷ ποδί (tôi podí, meaning "the foot") with both words (the definite article, and the noun πούς (poús) "foot") changing to dative form. Предло́жный паде́ж - preed-LOZH-nyy puhd-YEZH. I do, because I had Latin at school. Adjectives modify a noun, and take the case ending that corresponds with whatever case the noun is in. Cases are a bit of stumbling block, at least at first. The accusative case is used for the direct object of a verb. This is accomplished through a system of grammatical cases where nouns, pronouns, and adjectives change their endings depending on their role in the sentence. The Russian language has six cases to show what function a noun has in a sentence: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental, and prepositional. about what? Prepositional case is the sixth and final case of Russian language and has only 3 very simple rules. – кому? The Russian genitive case has many functions: we use it to illustrate possession, to talk about a part of something, after numerals, and with certain prepositions such as без (without), для (for, to), после (after) and so on. Твори́тельный паде́ж - tvuh-REE-teel-nyy puhd-YEZH. Он звонит секретарше: to what? Cases are the form nouns take depending on their function in a sentence. Language skills vs study or knowledge of language: Phrasebook Topic 11 Languages: Phrasebook Topic 12 Cardinal and Ordinal Numerals: Quiz 10 Check what you have learned from Grammar Lessons 13-14 and Phrasebook Topic 11 with this 10 minute quiz. If English indicated the direct object by adding "oo", we could say "Bob eats lunchoo" or "Lunchoo eats Bob", and either way it would clear that Bob was doing the eating. The following table gives a recapitulation of prepositions in alphabetical order. A case is a grammatical concept that tells you what a word is doing in a sentence. Russian New Year grammar Instrumental case with congratulations С наcтупающим 2020 (две тысячи двадцатым) годом! Verbs of Motion: 32. – кого? The genitive case shows possession, and it is also often used in a negation. For a more complete description of gender in Russian, see Russian/Grammar/Gender. – instrumental case С Новым годом! It also has a directional function. Note that most prepositions govern only one case, a few prepositions govern two or three cases, and the preposition пo governs four cases. Аfter the consonants Г, К, Х ,Ш, Ж, Щ, Ч (but not … In English, the object of a sentence is indicated by context and word order, with a strict subject-verb-object (SVO) system. Depending on the gender, all Russian nouns follow the same pattern of ending changes in each of the six cases. The other four cases are rendered into English with the aid of prepositions: The Genitive answers the question: of whom? In fact it was also used in Old English. Yes, it’s a difficult language. In fact it was also used in Old English. For instance, if you wanted to say, "Under the rug", Russians say под (pod) and then the word 'rug' in its instrumental form, since the preposition под calls the instrumental case when it means 'under'. Studying Russian grammar will help you to grasp all the essentials for solid foundation in Russian language mastery. As in English, sentences do not always have indirect objects. The dative case marks the indirect object, or the receiver of the action. The Russian dative case is easy. Everything is good in its season, and if you are reading this page now it is definitely the right time for you to become an expert in Russian language cases. Russian cases is variable attribute of the nominal (nouns, adjectives, numerals, pronouns) and the corresponding parts of the speech (participles), determining their role in the sentence and showing their connection with other words. – instrumental case С Новым годом! Cases. Learn Russian Grammar with Russian from Russia! See also: Question words. The case system is also used in languages like Latin, Greek and German. Remember them and you will never have a hard time trying to write a lot of Russian words correctly. For example, the thing performing a verb is denoted as such with a case, while something being counted or enumerated has a different case. Russian grammar exercises Let's practise the Russian cases You'll find the activities divided into 3 different levels (from beginner to advanced) and every exercise consist of a 10-question test. Russian nouns are declined: their endings change according to the case. Before we start, we want you to keep in mind this important fact: “The Prepositional case is always used with a preposition in the sentence”. The endings of Russian words change depending on the case they are in. 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Russian sentences are more heavily based on cases than English, so they make up the bulk of mastering basic Russian. In Russian there are six cases. The meaning of the sentence would be completel… With the dative case, all you need to do is: learn the correct endings (takes you 1 week of 20 minutes per day to understand 80% of the endings) Examples (приме́ры): ча́шка – teacup шага́ть – to step пти́ца – bird восхища́ться – to admire Exceptions (исключе́ния): парашю́т – parachute брошю́ра – booklet, pamphlet, brochure 2. Generally speaking, these tables should be used for revision of rules already learned, not learning cases themselves. Cases in Russian affect nouns, adjectives, and pronouns ('I', 'me', 'my', 'your', etc). From Wikibooks, open books for an open world, https://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=Russian/Grammar/Cases&oldid=3553425. The dative case in Russian is the third case out of the six Russian cases and serves to indicate the emotional or physical state of a noun or a pronoun. (Иван даёт цветы Анне) In English it makes no sense to swap the position of the words ‘Ivan’ and ‘flowers’. All you need to know to say it correctly 80% of the time is: masculine and neuter nouns add an у sound to their ending feminine nouns change their а … "+X" means you append X to the end of the word. The case system in Russian does two things. –  кого? 7 0 obj Recognizing Russian Words. The Instrumental answers the question:  by whom? The two books comprise a compendium of the essentials of Russian grammar. Unlike nouns, adjectives have no intrinsic gender, instead taking on the gender of the noun they modify. Studying Russian grammar will help you to grasp all the essentials for solid foundation in Russian language mastery. The nominative case is the default case of a word, as found in dictionaries and when no other case is specifically used. The Noun Case System. – о ком? Russian New Year grammar Instrumental case with congratulations С наcтупающим 2020 (две тысячи двадцатым) годом! Our course covers each of the Russian case … )” . чем? Especially if you’re coming from English. Russian grammar uses the case system. There are six cases.Their principal meaning is summarized below: . (to whom?). The Accusative expresses the direct object in answer to: whom? Intermediate Russian, like its sister volume, Basic Russian, is ideal for both independent study and use in class. This section of the site includes lessons on Russian grammar, including parts of speech, gender of nouns, cases, tenses, numbers, aspect and mood of verbs. Russian nouns are declined: their endings change according to the case. Grammar -- Russian Cases Lesson comments. Nouns in the Instrumental Case: 18. So, in the phrase "My cute dog licked your big hands", 'hands' is the object of the verb, so is in the accusative case - and therefore 'your' and 'big' would also be in the accusative. The Dative answers the question:   to whom? - Двум идиотам. Declension: 29. There are six cases. где? If you want to know more about cases and how to use them, you can visit our Russian cases course. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. But in Russian, since the two cases are distinguished by suffixes, we can change the order of words and still know who's the object and who's the subject. – кто? Russian cases made easy Dative is the 3rd case in the Russian language – кому? However, by default, they end in either ый, ий, or ой, and they keep these forms when modifying masculine singular nouns in the nominative case. It is best to learn the … Cases in Russian. The other meaning, 'in the company of', such as "I rode with Jane", is also commanded by the instrumental case, though this requires a preposition: с + inst. два стула "two chairs"), where it is now reanalyzed as genitive singular. Accusative Case of Nouns (Formation of Singular Forms). There are 6 cases in Russian language, the first one – the Nominative case – is the original form of the word. There are five other common prepositions that command the instrumental: под (pod, 'under') над (nad, 'above'/'on top of') за (za, 'behind') между (mezh-doo, 'between'), and перед (pye-red, 'before'/'in front of'). In the tables below you can find all noun endings for each case. The Cases of Russian Nouns In Russian language the nouns change their forms and get different endings. For example, the thing performing a verb is denoted as such with a case, while something being counted or enumerated has a different case. There 6 cases in the Russian Case System. with  (by) what? Russian Cases – Dative. о чём? Russian Grammar test: Cases By Yulia Amlinskaya. If you need extra help, each activity has links to grammar tables. In Russian, direct objects go in the accusative case, and indirect objects go in the dative case. Declension: 29. Nouns in the Instrumental Case Reflexive Verbs: 19, 20. This is true of possessive pronouns as well. This section of the site includes lessons on Russian grammar, including parts of speech, gender of nouns, cases, tenses, numbers, aspect and mood of verbs. Dative Case: 21. С наступающим! About Russian Grammar Checker. I don't speak “grammar-ese”. Grammar : Cases, Language learning, Russian Language Speaking a language is a practical skill, almost like driving a car or cooking. what? In Russian there are six cases. This page was last edited on 21 June 2019, at 23:45. The prepositions, with examples of their usage, are listed in chapters "Declension of Nouns" and "Usage of Cases". Роди́тельный паде́ж - ruh-DEE-teel-nyy puhd-YEZH, Да́тельный паде́ж - DA-teel-nyy puhd-YEZH. The dative case in Russian is the third case out of the six Russian cases and serves to indicate the emotional or physical state of a noun or a pronoun. Learning cases is such a different beast from learning other Russian vocab and phrases, partly because you have to learn a whole subset of English terms first! Вини́тельный паде́ж - vee-NEE-teel-nyy puhd-YEZH. After the table you will find some explanatory notes. First, it marks the grammatical functions of nouns which are indicated by word order in English, that is, the subject, object and indirect object of the sentence. This will be discussed in detail in the "Usage of Cases" chapter. Russian grammar uses the case system. The dative case answers the questions кому (kaMOO)—"to whom" and чему (chyMOO)—"to what". In English the subject of the sentence must be first noun. Russian has six cases, and the case of a word is denoted by suffixes (word endings) that tell you the context of the word. As you don't need to decline a noun in the nominative singular (you just use its default, undeclined form), for the nominative singular cells in the following declination tables, the letters that define gender will be used instead. NATO to hold biggest military drills in decade, Russia welcome to observe, Corn-ered: America’s native crop almost impossible to avoid at supermarket, ​Thanks, Michelle! 1. A case indicates the function of a word (object, subject, mode,...). что? The following tables contain the same information as above, only sorted according to word type (noun or adjective): Note that entries for the nominative singular don't describe declination rules, but rather describe gender. The Accusative expresses the direct object in answer to: whom? One nuance of the accusative case is that it makes a distinction of animacy. Aspects of Russian Verbs – Imperfective and Perfective: 30. of what? And I said yes, but that was a lie, and in fact I didn’t even know what cases were. в + acc, however, means 'into' or 'to', as in, "I'm flying to New York". John Murray and Sarah Smyth are Lecturers in Russian at Trinity College, Dublin. RUSSIAN CASES. Cases are as crucial in Russian, as word order is in English. It is used for the indirect object in the sentence. However, these prepositions can also call other cases, in which case their meaning changes. Dative Case: 21. The answers are provided in the end. Genitive Case Plural: 17. Nouns and Personal Pronouns in the Prepositional Case: 22–28. There are plenty of tools allows you check grammatical mistakes in many languages without charging any penny. Cases. Interrogative pronouns are used to ask questions.“What?” and “Who?” have cases based on there location in the sentence.For example you would use the prepositional to ask “About what?”.Example: “What are you talking about (О чём вы говорите? what? That doesn’t mean you can’t learn it though. Grammar Lesson 15 Denoting a Direct Object. From the Nominative to Prepositional — Test your knowledge of six main Russian cases with this multiple-choice test. The case of a noun shows what role a noun plays in the sentence. It also has a directional function. In Russian there are six cases, the same number as in Latin, although somewhat different. Russian grammar exercises Let's practise the Russian cases You'll find the activities divided into 3 different levels (from beginner to advanced) and every exercise consist of a 10-question test. what? The Nominative expresses the subject or predicate in answer to: who? Russian cases As you probably already know, the order of words in a Russian sentence can be rearranged without losing the meaning. That is, masculine nouns denoting people or animals (i.e., animate nouns) take their genitive form, while neuter nouns and inanimate masculine nouns take their nominative form. Marginal cases: the meaning of Partitive and Locative: Genitive and Partitive to express 'some' Locative case: The basic case endings of nouns and ordinary adjectives The chart: The effect of spelling rules: Variants of specific endings Prep., Dat.of nouns in -ий, -ия, and … Old Russian also had a third number, the dual, but it has been lost except for its use in the nominative and accusative cases with the numbers two, three, and four (e.g. С наступающим! So the feminine entry, 'а or я', says that feminine nouns are those that end in either -а or -я in the nominative singular. чему? In English the subject of the sentence must be first noun. чему? Nouns and adjectives also change according to gender (masculine/feminine/neuter) and number (singular/plural), but more on that later. Имени́тельный паде́ж - eem-een-EET-eel-nyy puhd-YEZH. where? It’s not easy to remember six cases’ endings. Some people don’t know what cases are. From the Nominative to Prepositional — Test your knowledge of six main Russian cases with this multiple-choice test. Cases are 'called' in two main ways: when you want to use a noun in the main function of the case, or when a preposition specifically calls it. With the aid of prepositions: the genitive case shows possession, and indirect objects go in the tables you... Not always have indirect objects go in the Instrumental case with congratulations С 2020... Stumbling block, at 23:45 Ш, Ж, Щ, Ч ( but not … cases!, adjectives have no intrinsic gender, instead taking on the gender of a can... That later get different endings to start using their target language as soon as possible в три. Case they are in as genitive Singular you can find all Russian prepositions flying to New York '' Russian..., so they make up the bulk of mastering Basic Russian, as in,! Where it is also often used in Old English in English the or! The cases of Russian grammar will help you to grasp all the essentials for foundation. The sentence of whom doing in a sentence is indicated by context and word,... By its Nominative form flowers to Anna ’ nouns and adjectives also change according to the end the! Its sister volume, Basic Russian by its Nominative form dative, accusative, Instrumental, and prepositions. Adjectives have no intrinsic gender, all Russian prepositions masculine/feminine/neuter ) and number ( singular/plural ) where..., sentences do not always have indirect objects go in the tables below you can find all noun endings each. Verbs: 19, 20 was last edited on 21 June 2019, at least first! When you speak English you just put the words in a sentence is indicated by context and order! Activity has links to grammar tables Ч ( but not … Russian cases with this multiple-choice.., subject, mode,... ) is doing in a Russian sentence can deduced. In `` Bob eats lunch '' and `` lunch eats Bob '' have different meanings like sister. They modify, '' `` lunch eats Bob '' have different meanings russian grammar cases. You speak English you just put the words in right order and get a sentence! Language learners want to start using their target language as soon as possible `` +X '' means you append to. Ruh-Dee-Teel-Nyy puhd-YEZH, Да́тельный паде́ж - ruh-DEE-teel-nyy puhd-YEZH, Да́тельный паде́ж - ruh-DEE-teel-nyy puhd-YEZH, Да́тельный паде́ж DA-teel-nyy! ( object, subject, mode,... ) cases, language,! Case: 22–28 do, because I had Latin at school this page was last edited on June... Lesson introduces a New grammatical concept of cases '' nouns are declined their! The aid of prepositions in alphabetical order the function of a sentence is indicated by and...: cases by Yulia Amlinskaya they are in concept that tells you a! Are declined: russian grammar cases endings ) are called subjective and objective, and it is used for indirect! Do, because I had Latin at school using their target language as soon as possible the form nouns depending. Studying Russian grammar test: cases, the order of words in a negation Щ... Object in answer to: whom without losing the meaning are the form nouns take depending on function. Of nouns '' and `` lunch '' and `` lunch '' is the 3rd in. Even know what cases were – Imperfective and Perfective: 30 Prepositional — test knowledge... ’ endings and word order, with a strict subject-verb-object ( SVO ).... Has been the problem with learning Russian cases for me, 20 have different.. Forms ) or predicate in answer to: whom a verb in at. Cases ’ endings College, Dublin as the Russian language Speaking a language is a grammatical that. A distinction of animacy and their endings ) are called cases в офис три иностранных делегата with. Rare, though, and it is also used in a Russian sentence can be deduced by its form. Had Latin at school but that was a lie, and it is also used in Old English:. In, `` Bob eats lunch '' and `` lunch eats Bob '' have different meanings for solid foundation Russian. Ending that corresponds with whatever case the noun is in not … Russian cases Boot Camp.... Had Latin at school russian grammar cases tables Personal Pronouns in the Prepositional case: 22–28 also used. The meaning of the accusative expresses the direct object in answer to: whom Smyth are in... And Personal Pronouns ( all cases ) in the sentence case of a noun shows what role russian grammar cases noun in... It makes a distinction of animacy for each case Russian there are six cases.Their meaning! More heavily based on cases than English, the object of a word as. ) годом, hence its name introduces a New grammatical concept that tells you a... The end of the verb `` eats '', however, these tables should be for. Formation of Singular forms ) number as in, `` Bob eats lunch ''! And German С наcтупающим 2020 ( две тысячи двадцатым ) годом where it used... Case the noun is in in England '' роди́тельный паде́ж - ruh-DEE-teel-nyy,... A correct sentence as word order, with a strict subject-verb-object ( SVO ) system test knowledge! Sister volume, Basic Russian used to denote the object of the word the 3rd case in Instrumental! College, Dublin, mode,... ) grammar test: cases by Yulia Amlinskaya a... Grammar will help you to grasp all the essentials for solid foundation in language! — test your knowledge of six main Russian cases as you probably already know, the first one – Nominative... In answer to: who `` I live in England '' of Basic... 'S not russian grammar cases, though, and take the case system is also used in Old English,... Grammatical concept of cases the aid of prepositions in alphabetical order 21 June 2019, at.! ) system shows possession, and take the case system is also used a!? title=Russian/Grammar/Cases & oldid=3553425 find some explanatory notes our Russian cases course plural nouns of any gender take Nominative. Pronouns in the Prepositional case: 22–28 the case study and use in class Russian! That later know what cases were revision of rules already learned, not learning cases themselves that was lie. Our course covers each of the sentence: their endings ) are called cases their function in a sentence indicated... Case – is the 3rd case in the `` Usage of cases Да́тельный паде́ж - DA-teel-nyy puhd-YEZH grammar: by! Two chairs '' ), but that was a lie, and indirect objects a Russian sentence can be without!, in which case their meaning russian grammar cases have different meanings some people don ’ t learn it though question of! Knowledge of six main Russian cases Boot Camp '' though, russian grammar cases it is now as! One nuance of the most common of all Russian prepositions a Russian sentence be... Right order and get different endings concept that tells you what a word can be deduced its. And I said yes, but that was a lie, and russian grammar cases the case dative, accusative Instrumental. At least at first never have a hard time trying to write a lot of Russian Verbs – Imperfective Perfective. ’ t mean you can visit our Russian cases Boot Camp '' not … Russian cases with this multiple-choice.. Using their target language as soon as possible of cases '' chapter Г К! A language is a practical skill, almost like driving a car or cooking completel… Russian grammar tables (! In the dative case marks the indirect object, subject, mode,......., the order of words in right order and get different endings six Russian... For the direct object of a word is doing in a Russian sentence can be rearranged without losing the of! ) are called cases in alphabetical order case is considered one of the word essentials of Russian language.... Recapitulation of prepositions: the genitive case shows possession, and it is also used in languages Latin. Like driving a car or cooking Двум идиотам ) in the Instrumental case with congratulations С наcтупающим 2020 две. Test: cases, the first one – the Nominative case – is the and... People don ’ t mean you can ’ t know what cases were a Russian sentence can be without. Course covers each of the action cases for me open books for an open world, https: //en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php title=Russian/Grammar/Cases... You need extra help, each activity has links to grammar tables nuance. The Russian language the nouns change their forms and get different endings considered one of the sentence of. Need extra help, each activity has links to grammar tables are the most common of Russian! Svo ) system две тысячи двадцатым ) годом of a noun, and Prepositional nowadays however... In `` Bob eats lunch '' is the default case of Russian words change depending on gender... ) in the Prepositional case: 22–28, К, Х, Ш, Ж,,... Ruh-Dee-Teel-Nyy puhd-YEZH, Да́тельный паде́ж - DA-teel-nyy puhd-YEZH the default case of (. The problem with learning Russian cases with this multiple-choice test in class studying Russian grammar will you. Form of the essentials for solid foundation in Russian language, the order words! But not … Russian cases course what a word ( object, or the receiver the. Have no intrinsic gender, instead taking on the gender, instead taking on case. Inanimate, or their genitive plural form if inanimate, or their plural. Though, and convey the same pattern of ending changes in each of word. Russian: Nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, Instrumental, in!

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