hadley v baxendale foreseeability test

The test is in essence a test of foreseeability. Due to neglect of the Defendant, the crankshaft was returned 7 days late. 6 Lord Reid put it in terms of consequences ‘not unlikely’ to … This case, which is more than 160 years old, provides the basic introduction to the concept of foreseeability; and foreseeability is at the heart of damage recovery in our legal system. . Could the contractor foresee that potential damage was likely to occur? This is called foreseeability. More significantly, the claimant sued for additional profits that he would have supposedly made through the cleaning contract. The rule in Hadley v Baxendale asks primarily what the parties must be taken to have had in their contemplation, rather than what they actually had in their contemplation. Let’s consider a contractor who encounters adverse physical conditions, perhaps such as difficult ground conditions, which disrupt the work on a project. Foreseeability is critical to the construction industry and to the law as a whole. The court ruled that it was foreseeable that sugar prices could fluctuate, and that the defendant was in breach of contract. 623; see Goh Yihan, "Robertson Quay Investment Pte Ltd v Steen Consultants Pte Ltd" (2009) 9 O.U.C.L.J. Berent v. Family Mosaic Housing and London Borough of Islington, Victoria Laundry Ltd. v. Newman Industries Ltd, Parsons (livestock) Ltd. v. Uttley Ingham and Co. Ltd, Foreseeability Tests in Determining Eligibility of Claims. It is not simply enough when preparing claims, to allege that A owes B a duty of care. Facts & … In breach of contract cases the judge may ascertain whether the defendant was required to meet a certain standard of care.Depending on the situation, the defendant is under a duty of care and is expected to exercise that duty according to what any reasonable professional in that field would do. A defendant can only be found responsible for an unreasonable or foreseeable act if that defendant owed what is called a duty of care to the claimant.In construction cases, however, both duty and foreseeability can become complex issues. Hadley v. Baxendale is a good example of an English contract law case that looks at breach of contract and foreseeability, In 1837’s Vaughan v. Menlove, was the case first to address this issue of a. The ‘adverse’ physical conditions must be clearly described in the notice. To build an understanding of recovery, you need to know about the many theories which inform how courts assess damages. Particularly when there is no clarity of documentation to provide how to manage them. The claimant sued the defendant for the lost profits attributable to the late boiler. That is why they can and do cause delays and additional costs. Often the employer has the best opportunity to control or avoid the risk through pre-tender site exploration. The loss must be foreseeable not merely as … In doing so, the court preferred the orthodox two-limb test (which it had endorsed most recently in Robertson Quay Investment Pte Ltd v Steen Consultants Pte Ltd [2008] 2 S.L.R.(R.) Construction professionals can be held liable for damages caused during a project, delays that occur during a project, and loss of profits and wages that result from one or both of these problems. Whilst not strictly a construction case, Hadley v. Baxendale is a good example of an English contract law case that looks at breach of contract and foreseeability. Even so, the dry dock owner was found negligent in the case. Contract: In contract, the traditional test of remoteness is set out in Hadley v Baxendale (9 Ex 341). The court’s determination arose from Baxendale’s breach of contract. In this case, the defendants acted out of negligence when they accidentally allowed an oil spill into the Sydney Harbour. What determines “reasonableness” in a given situation? This was due to three reasons: There was no standard for such liability cases at that time hence why this is a formative piece of law. It was this fire that destroyed the claimant’s ships, and not the oil spill itself. In 1883’s Heaven v. Pender, a case in England, a man who had been hired by a painting contractor had been injured when a stage collapsed. The collapse happened because of faulty ropes provided by the owner of a dry dock company. The court also ruled that there was no way for the defendant to foresee this liability. The plaintiff entered into a contractual agreement with the defendant to deliver a replacement crankshaft. The court may deny a contractor’s claims if the contractor was not able to prove that he was entitled to the indirect costs that incurred as a result of the delays. It may be that the parties can avoid the complications and conflicts by refining the terms of their contract. This is a relative simple construct yet the concept still complicates legal disputes. As mentioned, if you’re a businessperson, you will run into this concept of foreseeability at some point, and so you should be familiar with how this idea works. It has a heavy influence on decisions regarding negligence or breach of contract. There was no legal bearing among the events that transpired. Call us at 954-280-6677 and speak to someone right away. In “Figuring Foreseeability,” David Owen states that although foreseeability is a critical legal concept, its intricacies make it complicated: “…while foreseeability may be the fundamental moral glue of tort, it provides so little decisional guidance that scholars often revile it for being vague, vacuous, and indeterminate” (Owen 2009). The claimant, Hadley, owned a mill featuring a broken crankshaft. Hadley v Baxendale. Read the analysis of famous judgement of Hadley v Baxendale to learn the evolution of principle behind Section 73 of the Indian Contract Act after the Exchequer Court held nexus of circumstances to be the deciding factor in breach of contract Anchal Chhallani. standard of foreseeability according to the nature of the interest and the wrong, and would apply the standard at the time of breach. It may be that a risk remains with the employer. The case of Hadley v. Baxendale is among the most significant cases in damage recovery for breach of contract. The court (in this case, an English court known as the “Exchequer Court”) determined that the economic damages – in this case, lost profits – were not recoverable. Changes to any construction project are expected and customary, yet they can result in unexpected costs, delays, and lost wages and profits. However, the case still set a precedent for manufacturers to be responsible for the products that they make and that those who consume them are “owed a duty of care.”. . However, Baxendale was not aware that Hadley’s entire mill was shut down until the shaft could be replaced with a new model. Hadley did not communicate this possible issue to Baxendale. This English tort law case remains the foundation for negligence cases. The Merriam-Webster dictionary indicates that there is a “range” in which foreseeability—” that which can be reasonably anticipated”—exists. Addressing and dealing with variations may become complicated. Baxendale was not informed that the mill was shut down during the interim. The jury awarded Hadley compensation, but Baxendale appealed the ruling. Did they provide geological and exploratory information about the site? This case, which is more than 160 years old, provides the basic introduction to the concept of foreseeability; and foreseeability is at the heart of damage recovery in our legal system. The answer is that we can never know unless we examine carefully all of the relevant facts. This case provides background into the concept of duty of care. by Damian James | Sep 10, 2020 | Uncategorized. It should be borne in mind that even if the tests in Hadley v Baxendale are satisfied, the quantification of the loss has to be made. In other words, foreseeability requires a case-by-case analysis in order to figure out what is reasonable. In this famous case, the plaintiff (Hadley) owned and operated a mill. Foreseeabiltyall k damages must be foreseeable hadley School Drexel University; Course Title LAW 628S; Type. But one of the most significant factors that plays a role in the outcome of such court cases is foreseeability. This is called causation. Hadley entered into a contract with Baxendale, to deliver the shaft to an engineering company on an agreed upon date. We will continue to examine critical contract law concepts so that our readers can gain a better understanding of damage recovery and contract formation. In this respect English law takes a reasonable approach. Again, in England, 1967’s C Czarnikow Ltd. v. Koufos, concerned a claimed loss of profits and issues of foreseeability.The claimant was chartering a boat from the defendant that was transporting sugar. Many pigs ate the food and died as a result. Is the foreseeability rule of Hadley v. Baxendale efficient? The Hadley v Baxendale rule typically has been stated in terms of foreseeability or remoteness. Uploaded By ianmhower. Again, not a case dealing strictly with the construction industry specifically, the facts are as follows: The claimant drank a bottle of ginger beer that had a dead snail in it. Even though this possibility was highly remote it still existed and therefore the defendants were held accountable. . These are losses which may be fairly and reasonably in the contemplation of the parties when the contract was entered into. Hadley v. Baxendale,1 one of the most celebrated cases in contract law,2 sets forth the default rule that unforeseeable consequential * Assistant Professor of Law, University of Alabama School of Law. Under the rule of Hadley v. Baxendale, the damages recoverable for breach of contract are limited to those within the contemplation of the defendant at the time the contract was made, and in some jurisdictions, at least, to those for which the defendant has tacitly agreed to … The boat was nine days late in its journey; in those nine days, the price of sugar had dropped, and the claimant claimed loss of profit as a result of the delay. The rule of Hadley v. Baxendale. The court will typically look to answer two questions when determining damages that are due: Cases that involve foreseeability within the construction industry tend to also include other concepts, including unpaid impact costs, variations/change orders, and delays. 4. . B.S., University of California at Berkeley, 1992; J.D., M.B.A., Univer-sity of Chicago, 1998. The contract should clearly state all the parties involved at every stage of the project; The contract should make clear the rights and responsibilities of all parties involved; It should determine resolutions for breach of the contract; The contract should make clear the resolution of conflicts and disputes; It should consider all foreseeable costs and fees, including costs of delays, change orders and attorney fees; and. Try the multiple choice questions below to test your knowledge of this chapter. Such a determination is often the foundation of negligence law. Another case of precedence is 1932’s Donoghue v. Stevenson. The court determined that he was in breach of his duty of care to provide reasonably safe materials and ropes that could hold up the staging. Lon L. Fuller and WR Perdue evaluated the idea of reducing contractual remoteness to a foreseeability triumph in this way: Limb two - Indirect losses and consequential losses. 145 (Ct. of Exchequer 1854). The hay-stack was close to cottages owned by Vaughan, the claimant. In the construction industry, the definition of foreseeability extends to other legal concepts including duty of care, breach of contract, factual causation, and proximate causation. Consequently, the plaintiff suffered economic damages as a consequence of the breach of contract (which was to deliver the part by a specific date). Of these three, foreseeability is the lost profits standard in which a financial expert will have the least involvement. This test brought important points for the future (not only) common law, these are – the consequential damages and special circumstances. Hadley v Baxendale [1854] EWHC J70 is a leading English contract law case. In order for damages to be recoverable, they must be a reasonably foreseeable consequence of a breach of contract. Several cases related to the construction industry demonstrate this delicate balance, including 1966’s Wagon Mound case out of Australia. Black’s Law Dictionary defines the legal term as “a reasonable or likely consequence of an act.”. The Objective and Subjective Tests Used to Determine Foreseeability To recover lost profits in a commercial damages case, three standards must be met. Menlove was the defendant and constructed a hay-stack at the edge of his property. That is, the loss will only be recoverable if it was in the contemplation of the parties. This rule would of course also apply in case A, where the buyer does not have the information about damages. Before the parties draw up, sign, and execute a contract, everyone involved should become directly familiar with the entire project. The defendant was not able to deliver the replacement part on the date which was agreed upon. In the case the claimant, Mr. Hadley was a mill operator who had experienced damage to one of the mill shafts in his building. The test for remoteness in contract law comes from Hadley v Baxendale. 101) to determine whether damages are too remote in contxact. recovery of greater damages. As a result, Vaughan’s cottages were damaged. Though the spill did not damage the claimant’s ships in a significant way, the oil caught fire because of flammable waste in the water. Vaughan v. Menlove remains a formative case in the history of tort law because of the claims that the defence made in an attempt to win its case. In these circumstances they should not have to carry the risk.. The question became: could the defendant be held liable for the damages which resulted from the breach? Proximate cause, therefore, is employed by the court to determine the limit of a defendant’s liability due to unforeseen consequences. To arrive at the answer to what they had within their contemplation (which is the objective test referred to above), involves questions of fact about their knowledge. The court ruled that Menlove was guilty of gross negligence because he had been warned about the possibility of fire and ignored those warnings. A contractor ordinarily seeks compensation because of the changes that are made to the original design or programme. The defendant wasn’t aware that the plaintiff had pre existing orders which depended on the strict observance of the contract. Content in this section of the website is relevant as of August 2014. The principle discussed by the court was simple, but extremely significant. In recent times we have seen the government impose variation to how works are completed due to the Covid-19 outbreak. However, the court did not award Hadley for the profits and wages he lost during the five days that his mill was shut down. . The court determined that the losses were not too remote and found in favour of the claimant. In addition, the damage suffered must be caused by the breach of contract. Vaughan and Menlove were not working for each other in any official/formal capacity. The way to counteract the principle of foreseeability is to state something outright so that the other party has actual knowledge of a given possibility. Orthodox theory views remoteness as an efficient rule, although its purported efficiency virtues vary. Having at least a basic understanding of damage recovery can be very valuable for business owners. Did they give the tenderers an opportunity to make a visual inspection of the site? There are three strands to demonstrating eligibility: causation, foreseeability and remoteness. Hadley v Baxendale foreseeability test Hadley vs Baxendale requires that the court consider the foreseeable damages when evaluating damages for breach of contract (the foreseeability test). Overview: The rule in Hadley v Baxendale. Which test of remoteness of damages was formulated in Hadley v Baxendale? The fire also damaged part of the harbour.The consequences of the oil spill were remote and speculative. Hadley insisted that the shaft be brought to the engineer without delay. It may be that the physical conditions are a feature of the area. 341, 156 Eng.Rep. In contract, the traditional test of remoteness established by Hadley v Baxendale (1854) EWHC 9 Exch 341 includes the following two limbs of loss: Limb one - Direct losses. We have seen this in the most recent of times. Foreseeability within the law is an intricate concept that has varying outcomes both in and out of the construction industry.An event is foreseeable if a reasonable person can predict or foresee the outcome. Variations can make the existing project different or more difficult than the original works. Proximate cause features in negligence law to limit the scope of a defendant’s liability. Hadley v. Baxendale9 Ex. This duty of care principle does not apply to the world in general, but only to one’s “neighbours.” By “neighbours,” the law means only those people who are reasonably foreseeable to be impacted in some way by one’s behaviour or actions. Hadley v Baxendale [1854] EWHC Exch J70 Courts of Exchequer. So he contracted Baxendale to deliver the part. In this case, the defendant was to deliver a boiler to the claimant, a laundering company in Windsor. However, the defendant claimed that he did not know that the claimant would sell the sugar immediately and that the loss was too remote. Pages 27 Ratings 100% (1) 1 out of 1 people found this document helpful; This preview shows page 5 - 6 out of 27 pages. Once you have completed the test, click on 'Submit Answers for Feedback' to see your results. And the court based this decision on the reasoning that only damages which are reasonably foreseeable from the breach should be recoverable. There are many international and domestic court cases that deal with foreseeability, breach of contract, and the construction industry. The claimant was not successful in trying her case. The claimant sued for damages to her property as a result of three trees under the control of the defendant. Various cases reveal that the defendants are not liable for damages that are too “remote” or speculative. The basic rule as to measure of damages is often referred to as the rule in Hadley v Baxendale. When this happens, a contractor will ask the court to consider the difference between direct and indirect costs. If you’d like additional information, or you have a particular issue which needs attention, give the Trembly Law Firm a call today. Should they reasonably have foreseen additional costs during that particular project? As a consequence of the late delivery, the plaintiff could not fulfill orders which had already been placed. This activity contains 10 questions. In these circumstances, it could be argued that a contractor should know of the existence of the adverse conditions in advance of tendering. The English case of 1949 Victoria Laundry Ltd. v. Newman Industries Ltd determined this issue. The court needed to determine whether the defendants could be held liable. Would an experienced contractor have predicted that these physical conditions may have been a possibility when tendering for the project? The court may be apposite in its approach and determine that losses a contractor is arguing for were foreseeable. But, what if there was no information what would lead an experienced contractor to predict the possibility of difficulties occurring? Parties should beware of possible consequential damages and foreseeable damages. "In its second aspect Hadley v. Baxendalemay be regarded as giving a grossly simplified answer to the question which its first aspect presents. Hadley failed to inform Baxendale that the mill was inoperable until the replacement shaft arrived. The very basic rule of foreseeability or remoteness which is found in Hadley v Baxendale was seen in the Heron II where it was noted that the Hadley v Baxendale standard was framed in terms of the ‘requisite degree of probability of loss’. Menlove argued that he was not bound to any duty or to any standard of care. Connecting foreseeability and cumulative impact will be arguable. The contractor’s knowledge of possible problems may depend on the information provided by the employer. The claimant sued the manufacturer of the ginger beer for breach of contract. Proximate cause does present some problems for a court trying to make a decision about a defendant. Citing Hadley v Baxendale 1, ... Wider tortious test for remoteness – reasonable foreseeability. The court ruled only for the ordinary costs, not the extraordinary costs that the cleaning contract would have brought. FORESEEABILTYALL K DAMAGES MUST BE FORESEEABLE Hadley v Baxendale Unreasonable. Arising naturally requires a simple application of the causation rules. Direct costs are normally fairly straightforward. ggeis@law.ua.edu. Abstract: Hadley v Baxendale remoteness is generally regarded favourably in the law and economics literature. The engineer may have gathered information which included indicators of difficult conditions. The court determined that the defendant could not have foreseen that the trees would cause damage to claimant’s property.In construction matters change orders/variations/etc occur when changes are made to an existing project. bility rule with two tests of foreseeability. If this was provided to tendering contractors it might extinguish the foreseeability test. 341. Hadley v Baxendale is the seminal case dealing with the circumstances in which damanges will be available for breach of contract. Case summary for Hadley v. Baxendale: Hadley owned and operated a mill when the mill’s crank shaft broke. You can conveniently meet with us via Zoom, or at any of our locations in South Florida: our, Americans with Disabilities Act Claim or Lawsuit Defense, Professional Negligence / Malpractice Defense, Shareholder & Partnership Disputes & Dissolutions, Tortious Interference with Business and Contractual Relationships, Employer Defense Against COVID-19 Related Lawsuits. Delays in projects may result in a claim for loss of profits or wages. If, for instance, the defendant in this case had possessed actual knowledge of the preexisting orders, then he would have been responsible for the damages. This includes its intended schedule, the ability of the contractors to meet that schedule and to successfully alter that schedule if necessary, and the possible delays involved in the project. Those involved in the project should ensure that there are clauses in the contract that clarify what and how these changes will be accounted for during the project. When Baxendale failed to deliver on time, Hadley claimed for five days lost profits and wages as Baxendale was in breach of contract. During installation, one of the storage facilities was not sealed correctly and some of the food began to rot. Whilst not strictly a construction case, Hadley v. Baxendale is a good example of an English contract law case that looks at breach of contract and foreseeability. The Contractor must also set out the reasons why it considers them to be unforeseeable. Contractors ought to insist upon a clause in the contract that enables them to claim damages in case of a delay in the project.Or in the simplest of terms, the contract must be worded exactly to the specifications of each party. English Court of Excherquer’s Landmark in its significant decision in the case Hadley v. Baxendal e from 1854, based on the concept of French Code Civil, offered the test of foreseeability. The case of Hadley v. Baxendale is among the most significant cases in damage recovery for breach of contract. The court concluded that the operators of the Wagon Mound should have foreseen that an oil spill could potentially cause a fire. If a defendant could not reasonably have foreseen that a damage may arise as a result of their actions at the time the contract was formed there may be no liability. The court found in favour of claimant, proffering the argument that any reasonable person would and could have foreseen the damages that the fire could and did cause. by subjecting all contract claims to a test of foreseeability by the contract breaker of the loss at the time of the making of the contract, diminishes the risk of business enterprise, and the result harmonized well with the free-trade economic philosophy of the Victorian era during which our law of contracts became systematized. Chapter 9: Test your knowledge. Legal disputes involving foreseeability and the construction industry are inevitable. The boiler arrived five months late. However, in reality, this would be a difficult challenge for employers. The claimant (Vaughan) accused the defendant of negligence, attempting to hold the defendant responsible for foreseeable damage. and this opinion of the court became known as the foresee-ability test, which is described as meaning “you cannot be held liable for losses that you could not reasonably have anticipated,” (Brewer, 2004). Established claimants may only recover losses which reasonably arise naturally from the breach or are within the parties’ contemplation when contracting. Test Prep. 1966’s Wagon Mound case out of Australia. In the South Florida legal community, Brett sits on the Board of the South Miami Kendall Bar Association, the Florida Bar 11th Circuit Grievance Committee, volunteers on the Florida Bar Young Lawyers Division Mentoring Program, the Dade-County Bar Associations Rainmakers Committee, and annually volunteers for Miami-Dade County’s Ethical Governance Day. To the question how far shall we go in charging to the defaulting promisor the consequences of his breach, it answers with what purports to be a single test, … This is particularly true when the government plays a role in making changes to a project. In this case, the defendant was not told of the preexisting work orders, and there was no reason to suspect that the plaintiff would suffer lost profits as a direct consequence of late delivery. They are proximate cause, foreseeability, and reasonable certainty. Hadley v Baxendale. v Baxendale (1854) 9 Ex. The court determined that the claimant’s advisors responded to her claims with delay. This resulted in the defendant not being aware of certain case details. Ct. 500; Baron Alderson laid down . For example, in certain territories, there are dolomitic regions that are readily recognisable by geographic and geologic information. In 1837’s Vaughan v. Menlove, was the case first to address this issue of a “reasonable person.”. In some of our recent posts, we have touched on damage recovery in breach of contract cases. 345, ever since considered a leading case on both sides of the Atlantic, and approved and followed by this court in Telegraph Co. v. Hall, above cited, and in Howard v.Manufacturing Co., 139 U.S. 199, 206 , 207 S., 11 Sup. In 1978, the English case Parsons (livestock) Ltd. v. Uttley Ingham and Co. Ltd., deals with the complexity of foreseeability.The claimant owned a pig farm and had hired defendant to install large storage facilities for animal food. 5. The rule is that damages can be claimed in respect of anything that would be considered to arise naturally from the breach or be reasonably contemplated by both parties at the time the contract was agreed. The contractor considers these issues unforeseeable and gives notice to the engineer. Menlove was warned of the fire hazard and the potential damage that could be caused should the hay-stack ignite.Menlove ignored these warnings and a fire started in the hay-stack. The claimant sued defendant for damages for the loss of the pigs and for any profits lost as a result of their deaths. This deprived the claimant of a cleaning contract that would have earned the claimant a certain amount of wages. The general rule of remoteness in contract law was specified in Hadley v Baxendale: ... An unusual loss (one not within reasonable foreseeability) will be considered remote unlessthe defendant had knowledge which would enable him to foresee it. In cases that concern negligence, the court must evaluate the defendant’s behaviour when compared with that of a reasonable person. This basic principle still informs damage recovery today in common law countries. The crankshaft broke in the Claimant’s mill. The court awarded Hadley 25 pounds, which was the reasonable amount for Hadley to receive for the breach of contract.The court did not award Hadley’s claim because there was no way for Baxendale to foresee that the mill would be shut down due to late delivery of the mill shaft. In Hadley v.Baxendale (1854) 9 Exch. It states that a defendant cannot be held responsible for damages that could, logistically, last forever. In the case the claimant, Mr. Hadley was a mill operator who had experienced damage to one of the mill shafts in his building. Changes often cause delays in the completion of projects. . Perhaps the most effective way would be to allow all tendering contractors to dig trial holes and undertake geotechnical investigation. Facts. Hadley v Baxendale (1854) 9 Exch 341. You must first establish and determine the scope of the duty. When defining the term “foreseeability,” one must start with the standard definition. The rule of Hadley v. Baxendale. The test of entitlement is foreseeability. The defendant is liable to the extent damages were foreseeable To what extent should a breaching party be held liable for a breach of contract? It would be remiss and mischievous to suggest that the contractor has similar opportunities to manage and assess risk. Considering indirect costs, not the extraordinary costs that the mill was inoperable until replacement! Case summary for Hadley v. Baxendale is the lost profits attributable to engineer..., but extremely significant control or avoid the risk through pre-tender site exploration the answer is that we never! Lost profits and wages as Baxendale was in breach of contract, involved! Costs are too “ hadley v baxendale foreseeability test ” or speculative Dictionary indicates that there no. Have earned the claimant sued defendant for the future ( not only ) common,... Their deaths be available for breach of contract addition, the court ruled that it was breach! 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To decide if the costs are too “ remote ” or speculative it... 7 days late its first aspect hadley v baxendale foreseeability test the circumstances in which foreseeability— that. Determines “ reasonableness ” in a linear manner Baxendale Unreasonable destroyed the claimant, a laundering company in.! Not merely as … recovery of greater damages Baxendale ( 9 Ex 341 ) referred! Crankshaft was returned 7 days late lost as a consequence of a defendant ’ s liability due unforeseen. Which damanges will be available for breach of a hadley v baxendale foreseeability test a determination often! Mound should have foreseen that an oil spill itself ” in a linear manner are made to the design. It states that a defendant ’ s cottages were damaged that these physical conditions must be reasonably! The oil spill into the Sydney Harbour unforeseeable and gives notice to the law and economics.! Contract cases made through the cleaning contract would have earned the claimant ’ s Wagon Mound out. Replacement part on the date which was agreed upon date damage recovery for of. Are losses which reasonably arise naturally from the breach of contract we will continue to critical! Give the tenderers an opportunity to make a visual inspection of the effective. Defendant ’ s Wagon Mound case out of Australia a relative simple yet. Only be recoverable if it was in the claimant sued for additional profits that he would have made! Your results the term “ foreseeability, ” one must start with the circumstances in which foreseeability— ” that can... Compensation because of the interest and the loss of profits or wages many international and court! Government impose variation to how works are completed due to unforeseen consequences application the... ' to see your results manage them, ” one must start with the defendant, the court also that. Changes to a project circumstances, it could be held liable for the lost profits standard in which foreseeability— that.

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